A precis version of the original treatise
| This is the work of
Warwick Kellaway of
N.Z. who has been working on Kellaway/Callaway history for many years. The
Chronicles is a larger work continuously being updated. This precis has
recently prepared by Warwick.
You can e-mail Warwick on warwickkellaway at gmail.com Return to Kellaway Home Page
THE EARLY YEARS 1100-1600
The name Kellaway/Kelleway/Kelloway/Kelway/Callaway/Calloway/Callway/Callow/Kellow, and the other variants seen today, is reasonably considered to derive from the village of Caillouet, in Eure, northern France. As the story of the family has unfolded, it has become apparent that most, if not all, of about 400 names, often seemingly so different now, are related.
Although located beside a Roman Road, and therefore potentially being very much older, the village of Caillouet, east of Evreux in Eure, was probably established after the arrival of invading Viking/Norsemen, who moved up and settled along the rivers of northern France about the 9th century. The area, later called Normandy, produced the Normans, and William the Conqueror. The available information about the village begins in those Norman times.
There was initially no evidence that a
knight, or anyone from Caillouet, crossed to England with William in
1066, and no reference to the name has been found in the Domesday
Book of 1086.
Earlier there had been a Guillaume de Cailli/Cailly, described as a Companion of the Conqueror, who was said to have crossed with William. Research now indicates that his father Osbert, Viscomte de Cailli, may have been in England before the Conquest, as an envoy from William to King Edward the Confessor.
Guillaume de Cailly was granted land after the Conquest, as is recorded in Domesday.
The villages of Caillouet and Cailli sur Eure themselves are only a few kilometres apart in Normandy, and there was probably some family relationship between the people of the two places. Caillouet could possibly have been the home of a “younger” family, while both were apparently under the Lords of Vaux, and appear to have been kinsmen of the Beaumont family.
In England individuals would be known by both versions of the name for the next two to three centuries, before the families finally separated. In France there would be further differing versions of the name.
The variations used of Roger’s name indicate the difficulties in determining the family in this and later periods. In the past 900 years there have been over 400 name variants, some seemingly with no apparent phonetic relevance, and it appears that other families today, such as Cayley, Kell(e)y in Devon, who descend from de Cailli, Callow, and Kellaw, are related, or have mixed in some way.
The reasons for the variations are the low level of literacy at the time, the language conversion from French to English, French remaining the language at Court for several centuries. The French language not having a K, dialectic differences between different parts of the country, and the interpretations of the clerics/scribes of the time. Differing versions of the name for the same person, could even occur in the same legal document, into the 1500s. C and K alternatives of the name, for the same person, in Parish Registers, well into the 1800s.
While there are new records appearing of family members about the same time, the first dated record of the family has been accepted to be in the Gloucester Pipe Rolls of 1165, with Philip de Chailewai holding land in Wiltshire. It could be said therefore that, because of this fact, and that the family was later to be related by marriage to the House of Plantagenet, while people from Caillouet were evidently in England earlier, the establishment of the family was confirmed with the arrival from Normandy of Henry Plantagenet as King Henry II in 1154. The reference presumably relates to the Manor now known as Kellaways in Wiltshire.
Somewhere about 1150 however, Hawisa, the widow of Philip de Kayleway, married William, Earl of Gloucester and cousin to the King. Hawisa, a Beaumont and eldest daughter of Robert Earl of Leicester, was descended from the Royal Houses of France, Sweden and Denmark, as well as other ruling families. The Beaumont family was then very powerful in England, Normandy and France.
Philip’s family therefore must have had some standing when they married. The de Caillis were in that position, with a pedigree themselves back to the early 1000s, giving further support for the relationship between the two families. Continuing research has now indicated that Guillaume de Cailli married Maud de Beaumont about 1070, thus confirming them as kinsmen.
Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan in France was the elder twin of Hawisa's father Robert Earl of Leicester. He was also Earl of Worcester in England. His son Robert II of Meulan had as his huntsman Alexander de Caillouet, who held the fiefdom of Caillouet. Alexander would have been closely related to Philip, possibly his brother, while later references to property in Worcester suggest that Philip may have been in the service of Waleran. He may have gone on the Second Crusade, and could have died about 1148.
While most of the later recorded family history occurs in the south of England, early references in the north also seem to explain the presence of the de Cailli family around Norfolk and particularly the important de Kellawe family in Durham.
In 1189, Hawisa and William of Gloucester’s daughter Hadwiga/Isabella married Prince John. She was discarded eleven years later, technically because of blood relationship, but Hawisa and Philip de Kayleway had earlier had a son Philip, presumably the man referred to in 1165, and at least one daughter, who therefore became related to the Royal House. Philip was recorded in Worcester in the 1160s. Nicholas, perhaps his brother, about the same time in Devon. Apparently indicating property settlements for Philip's family.
Hugh, possibly another son, was recorded with regard to the property of Ayleworth in 1189, the year King Henry II, father of both King Richard I, and King John, died.
The Beaumont family had heavily supported William the Conqueror's invasion of 1066, and were rewarded with extensive properties.
Walter Giffard had been the standard bearer for William at the Battle of Hastings, and the Baronnial Giffard family was to be powerful in England for nearly 300 years. There were several family marriages to Giffard daughters in the late 1100s and early 1200s, with further property for the family, including probably Kellaways in Wiltshire. After the execution of John Giffard for treason in 1327, John le Calewe of Gloucester and Dorset was for a time considered his heir. This was as a consequence of forebear Elias de Kaillewey’s marriage to Bertha Giffard, about 1185. However the properties were afterwards handed to Sir John Maltravers, who was actually one of the murderers of King Edward II.
The first Elias appears to have held a position of considerable importance around 1200, and there was to be a series of Eliases and Johns recorded in the family from that time.
The manor of Terintone, Wiltshire, later called Tuderintone/Kaylewent, and other variations, known today as Kellaways and, with Tytherton Lucas, one of two knights fees, had been the property of the Giffard family from the Conquest. Thought to be the manor referred to in 1165, it may have been subsequent to the marriage with Bertha Giffard. Held by William and Elias de Kaillewey in the early 1200s, it was lost, due to some dispute, about 1394, although St Giles Church there later reverted to family Patronage until 1429. St Giles Church had been founded in 1304.
The small Castle of Brimpsfield in Gloucestershire, earlier held by the Giffards, and the manor of Side nearby, both probably marriage settlements, were also in family possession until the 1300s.
the same time that Philip was being referred to in Gloucestershire
and Wiltshire, Nichol/Nicholas de Chaillocia/Cailloe appears. It
seems he held the manor of Muxbere/Mokesbeare in Devon, and it
appears likely that he was a brother of one of the Philips.
also connected to the Earl of Gloucester, was later confirmed to have
a close family relationship with the Wiltshire/Gloucester branch.
Philip, said to be a “younger son” of William, and perhaps the same Philip who killed Anketill de Dugheltone in 1238, moved to the manor of Stafford Barton at Dolton, Devon, somewhere about 1270. There is now evidence that the family was well established around Dowland, St Giles in the Wood, Roborough and Broadwoodkelly, about the same time. Perhaps under the overlordship of the Beaumonts, as they were recorded as holding much of Devon in the Domesday Book, the major census of England carried out in 1086.
The two families, commonly referred to separately as the Dorset and Devon families, were clearly closely related, particularly concerning Mokesbeare. And the relationship continued. The Stafford Barton family however, although perhaps remaining in a secondary position, and later known as Stowford and Stafford, were actually better recorded in the later legal records, particularly the Heraldic Pedigrees, than the Wiltshire/Dorset family.
It is now thought that the Kell(e)y family of Kelly in Devon, said to have lived continuously in the same location since the time of Henry II, when Nicholas held Mokesbeare, may also be related to the de Caillys.
By the early 1200s, family members appeared at Dunes Weston in Dorset, and at Durham in the north. It is probable that men at these places were sons, or close relatives, of the first Elias, although it is interesting that two names, Radulphus/Ralph in Dorset, Alexander in Durham, matched others in France about the same time. Suggesting the possibility that family members may have crossed the Channel at different times.
The Dorset manor known as Dunes Weston, later as Calewe Weston, was probably today's Stalbridge Weston, and assumed prominence as the home of John le Calewe, who with a direct descent from Elias, was acknowledged as the family head by the early 1300s. We have his father John's will, of 1308.
At this time the family seems to have been numerically more prominent in Dorset around Wimborne, the Gussages and Critchels, in eastern Dorset. Perhaps due to the Magistrate at Blandford being Walter le Calewe.
Although it is not certain exactly where they lived, John le Calewe's family retained the family name, to some extent because they built and held the patronage of St Giles Church at the Wiltshire manor. Probably living there until around 1390. Other family members who remained at Stalbridge Weston used the name de Weston. Later to become Weston.
From 1311-16, Richard de Kellawe was the powerful Prince Palatine Bishop of Durham, his family having lived in Durham for at least 50 years, probably more. The Bishopric was actually largely temporal, and had a Standing Army to protect the northern borders against the Scots. Richard’s brother Patrick was the senior knight in Durham when the English forces lost the 1314 Battle of Bannockburn, and the town paid a heavy price to keep the Scots out. The de Kellawe family was important in the town for many years, before and after this time. St Giles Church at Kellaways, and others in family Parishes, indicate Richard's influence.
the family earlier had generally supported King John or the Barons in
the civil conflict before and after Magna Carta in 1214, we do not
know, but the diverse locations, from Durham to Devon, could have had
some strategic significance. While it is difficult to determine, the
principal family seems to have moved about, perhaps from Gloucester
to Wiltshire, to Devon and then Dorset, by 1300, before returning to
Names now came to designate the place of abode, rather than the particular family, with, de Stoford in Devon, and de Weston in Dorset. In Devon, members of the Dolton family became Stoford, then Stafford, and some members of the Dorset family became Weston. Later remnants of the Durham family appear to have assumed the name Kellaw, or Callow.
prefix “le” was used for some reason during the 1300s instead of
“de”, causing further name confusion, particularly as “calo”
was said to mean in Old English “the bald”, suggesting a
different source for the name. Possibly one of them was so
Whether they had a close relationship with Baron Thomas de Cailly, we do not yet know. The co-incidence of the 1308 dates was probably only that, although John's son John was the man recorded with the Giffard Inheritance, where we have the descent from the marriage between Elias de Kailleway and Bertha Giffard.
Indicating the continuing level of importance of the family at that time.
During the reign of Richard I from 1272-1306, the Court garden contained Cailhou/Caylowel or Cailleway pears. Presumably of French origin, they later appeared on the family coat of arms. (See www.kellawayhouse.co.uk/pears.htm)
The family did not escape the murder and mayhem of the period, and had its share of misfortune and misdeed, as well as honour and success. About 1220 Elias’s daughter Matilda had a hand in the murder of her husband, Richard Butler. Only escaping serious retribution by having very powerful connections – and being sent to a nunnery. An important surviving early legal case.
1238 Philip de Kaillewai escaped penalty for murder by producing
“letters close to the king”. The episode possibly preceding the
later occupation of Stafford Barton. Robert le Calewe lost part of
an ear in 1278, Adam de Calewe was killed in 1296, Michael le Calewe
members became involved in trade and shipping in early times,
exporting wool, cloth, and tin, importing wine, from 1300, if not
Edmund de Cayleway, the second to last family Patron of St Giles Church in Wiltshire, after losing the Wiltshire manor about 1394, moved to Chenstone Manor, Chawleigh, Devon, there taking the patronage of nearby Cheldon Rectory,. He built three chapels at the manor, one for St Giles, St James Chawleigh, and St Marys Cheldon. Two of the three churches, at Chawleigh and Cheldon, remain today.
not far from Stafford Barton, had been held by the family from much
earlier times, and after seven generations the family was said to
have moved west. These parishes were also Beaumont property at
Edmund apparently had two sons, Thomas and John. John seems to have “retrieved” the patronage of Wiltshire St Giles from 1405-29. He may have lived at Sherborne, while holding that patronage, and possibly, slightly later, that of Cheldon until 1440.
The prefix “de” was now totally discarded, probably because the family was no longer recognised as being “from” the manor in Wiltshire. It had not been used by the Devon, and other families, who were living away from Wiltshire.
The two families, that of John, and that of Thomas and Joane Bingham, were well recorded over the next 200 years, and there were some important people. There were several Williams, and Johns, in Dorset in the 1400s. Their actual relationship has been difficult to determine, but is now considered to be as follows:
first John is thought to have been the brother of Thomas and, after
leaving Wiltshire in 1429, may have been patron of Cheldon Devon
until 1440. He could however have lived at Sherborne.
John's son William Caleway of Sherborne is presumed to have been born around 1395-1400, and we have his 1469 will. He was a Parliamentary Representative for Dorchester, and Commissioner of the Peace for Dorset. He, his father John, and cousin John, were important in Sherborne and Dorset in the first half of the 1400s. They also seem to have retained a close association with the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon.
his marriage to heiress Joane Barrett, William Cayleway/Kayleway,
presumed to be the grandson of William and great grandson of the
above John, acquired Dorset and Wiltshire properties for the family.
The family of Thomas, William’s surviving son and heir, his elder brothers, John and William, presumably not reaching maturity, later returned to Wiltshire. But this time to Whitparish and Bapton, not the old Kellaways manor. It may be his arms seen today in Sherborne Abbey.
members later went to Stalbridge, Dorset, probably the old manor of
Dunes Weston, to Dewlish and Milton Abbas, and to Stoford and
Lillington, near Sutton Bingham in Dorset.
brother Thomas, husband of Joane Bingham, had died before 1422, but
appears to have had a son John, who died in 1467. That John himself
had a son John, who apparently died at a relatively young age.
THE KNIGHTS OF ROCKBORNE:
In 1507, John, Sir William's son and heir, inherited the manor of Rockbourne along with extensive other properties. He was Sheriff of Hampshire, and was also knighted, about 1530. On his death in 1547, he left properties from the Scottish Marches in the north, to Calais in France.
John’s son William attended the Court of King Henry VIII, and was a
member of his personal bodyguard. Also a Commissioner of the Peace
for Dorset, he was made a Knight Bachelor by Queen Mary at her
coronation in 1553. His family included sons ffrancis, John,
Edward, Ambrose, and a late Charles. Daughters Sybill, Elizabeth and
Sir William's son ffrancis, and grandson Thomas, however were continually in trouble, and eventually, despite the efforts of ffrancis’s brothers, lost the family fortune, property, and the manor of Rockbourne itself, in 1608.
Sir John married twice, and his second family produced four sons.
Gyles was captain of a galleass, and
mischievously captured a Spanish ship in 1545. England not being
then at war with Spain, he had to return it. He lived at Stroud and
Bridport, south Dorset.
It seems several, if not all, benefited considerably from the Dissolution of the Chantries, carried out by cousin Robert Keilway, although Henry and George may have died in France, when England lost the last French possessions there.
Perhaps the most important, most recorded person of all at this time, Robert Keilway, is thought to have been a member of the Dorset/Rockbourne family. However his pedigree was for some reason never stated.
He had a close association with the Rockborne knights, but may have descended from an earlier branch in Dorset. He and his father, also Robert, and possibly an unrecorded son of the first Sir William, were Mayors of Salisbury, as in 1496 had been an interesting William Webb, alias Kellowe.
During his long life Robert was regarded as the leading legal man in the country, although there were confusingly other Roberts at the time. He was appointed Surveyor of Wards and Liveries under young King Edward VI, and had joint charge of the Dissolution of the Chantries, which followed the Dissolution of the Monastries. Evidently Commissioner of the Peace for virtually the whole of south west England, he had many notable positions. He was credited with important legal treatises. Born in 1497, at his death aged 84, he was Master of the Inner Temple, the highest legal position in England, and left a considerable fortune to his only daughter Anne, later Lady Harrington, and to other relatives.
(The use of aliases around this time has not assisted the determination of family connections, and their reason, here or elsewhere, is not fully understood. Another name, Clarke alias Kellaway, or Kellaway alias Clarke, continued in Dorset for some 300 years. It, and the Webb above were presumably derived from occupations. It appears that the aliases could be geographical, determining the location, occupational, perhaps acquired through marriage, or, as with the alias George, to differentiate an individual.)
The accepted family coat of arms today dates from probably around 1450-1500, possibly from Sir William's knighthood, and comprises four pears between crossed glaziers snippers/grosing irons, thereby combining the craft of stained glass with the variety of “family” pear then popular.
Evidence, which also indicates links with other families, suggests that there could have been earlier family arms, of a chevron and three leopards (lions) faces. These arms include the families of Callow, Kaloway, Kelley, and Weston. The use of “leopards” in COA dates from the gift of three leopards from the German Emperor to King Henry III in 1223.
Among other notable people in the family, John of Colyton/Cullompton in Devon, was a “merchant of the staple”, and very wealthy, with extensive property in the south of England. When he died in 1531, he however left only a family of daughters, of some 14 children. His widow Jane Tregarthin lived on for a further 53 years, remarried, and produced, in all, as many as 20 children.
The heiress daughters of John of Cullompton married into some of the important families of the Tudor period. Among them Lyte, Cooke, Codrington, Harewood, Trengoffe, Grenville, and probably Drake.
The Stowford/Stafford family continued to be prominent in Devon, while members of both families held positions of importance throughout the counties of the West Country.
In the early 1500s, there were a number of family members recorded at Marnhull, and particularly around Dewlish manor in Dorset. Unfortunately not confirmed, the Dewlish families may have descended from younger sons of the senior families.
In 1594 Nicholas Kellaway, of Forston and Charminster in Dorset, evidently a prosperous merchant, perhaps the son of another Nicholas who could have been born around 1500, but whose exact origin is also yet to be determined, produced a will naming his six sons, Ralph, Christopher, Thomas, John, Erasmus and Henry.
Some of the sons and their descendants, in turn produced wills, and gave an indication of the families that were to reside in Dorset in succeeding centuries.
The Elizabethan Period of 1558-1603 was one of increasing wealth, power and importance for England, but also continued religious conflict. Following the death of Queen Elizabeth, the new century would not see the same level of importance for the family, as the wealth and property had largely gone, and the descendants, although more numerous, were scattered, principally among the villages of the West Country.
Some were later to leave for other lands.
Warwick Kellaway August 2013
numerous research areas, some of the principal references have been: